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Methylphenidate: Pros and Cons


What is methylphenidate?

Methylphenidate, usually known by the trade names Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate and others is a medicine used to treat the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some children with ADHD do well using behavior training methods, and may not need a medicine. For other children, this medicine can improve attention, focus, goal-directed behavior, and organizational skills. As with any medicine, there are pros and cons to its use.

How does it work?

Methylphenidate is a stimulant medicine. Researchers think that the area of the brain that controls when to pay attention to certain activities and when to ignore other ones is immature and works poorly in children with ADHD. The medicine stimulates those areas of the brain so that the child can better pay attention and focus on activities.

What are the pros?

Stimulant medicines work quickly, so you'll know within a few days if it will help or not. The dosage may have to be adjusted by your healthcare provider. It is fairly inexpensive and has been used for many years. If your child is having problems with attention, focus, and being overactive in school, stimulant medicine may provide some relief. Benefits of this medicine often include:

  • less trouble finishing class work and homework
  • less fidgeting or squirming
  • better control of emotions
  • less impatience and impulsiveness
  • better relationship with family and friends
  • increased self-esteem.

What are the cons?

As with any medicine, it can have side effects. Some children will have few or no side effects. Other children may have to stop using it because of the side effects.

Some common side effects include:

  • decrease in appetite
  • trouble falling asleep
  • headaches
  • irritability
  • stomachaches.

Some children may become more active in the evening after the medicine has worn off. This can be an ordeal for families who are tired and stressed out at the end of the day.

This medicine has been linked to sudden death in children and teens with heart defects or other heart problems. Your provider may test your child for heart disease before your child takes this medicine. Talk with your provider about the risks and benefits.

Rarely, this medicine causes high blood pressure, weight loss, growth delays, or aggressive behavior. One to two percent of children on this medicine have facial twitches called tics. If your child already had tics, the medicine may make them worse. The tics get better if the medicine is stopped. A few children don't like the way the medicine makes them feel. Most, however, like being better able to concentrate on schoolwork and control their activity level.

About 25% of children with ADHD do not respond to methylphenidate, although some of these children will benefit from other ADHD medicines.

What other things can be tried?

There are several treatment approaches for ADHD. Other treatments may or may not be used at the same time as methylphenidate. These include:

  • changes to the child's education program
  • cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • parent education
  • social skills training.

The medicine is not a cure. There is no cure for ADHD, though medicine can help manage some of the symptoms. Your child is usually given a small dose at first, so it may be necessary to increase the dose.


Written by Robert Brayden, MD, Professor of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine.
Published by RelayHealth.
Last modified: 2011-02-11
Last reviewed: 2010-10-13

This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a health care professional.

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